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New Book of Prof. Musa S. Dibadj, Ph.D.

Professor of Philosophy, University of Tehran, Iran

In the Name of God

POLITICAL BOUNDARIES: SOURCES OF POWER,
POLITICAL ACTION AND ANARCHAISM,
Musa S. Dibadj , Tehran; Meshkat: 1998.

Introduction:
With all essential changes in the practice and meaning of the politics in the post cold war era, the principle of justice has become the most effective role in viewing the current political movement. This does not mean that we as global beings get convinced with the same motivational purpose of justice based on unwritten convention. The human mind is tired to consider any longer the contemporary structure of state, mother for all, able enough to promote the good life for world of ordinary people. There might be civilization without state nonetheless yet still possible to have a so called deconstructed form of state, with a peaceful security conceivable, after appearing general satisfaction brought by justice. It would appear soon that laws are not necessarily obeyed because of the endorsement of states.

بسم هللا الرحمن الرحیم

حدود سیاسی
)مبانی قدرت، عمل سیاسی و آنارشیسم(
سیدموسی دیباج
بهمن 1397
فهرست مندرجات
مقدمه
فصل اول: ماهیت امر و عمل سیاسی
عمل سیاسی در فلسفه سیاسی
ماهیت امر و عمل سیاسی
تعارض هرمنوتیک متن سیاسی و سیاست هرمنوتیکی عمل
فصل دوم: اخالق و مشروعیت
منابع متمایز سیاست و اخالق
التزام به قانون یا احترام به آن
قانون موضوعه و قدرت سیاسی
مشروعیت عملی نظام غیر از مشروعیت مبنایی آن است
متد دولت و مشروعیت انقالب
فصل سوم: اخالق سیاسی و امکان عملی اخالق
فلسفه سیاسی معطوف به عمل سیاسی
اضطرار شهروندی و آزادی را ضروری می سازد
اخالق سیاسی و امکان عملی اخالق
اخالق در جهت پایداری قدرت
قرارداد اجتماعی مبتنی بر عین قدرت است
بردگی تفویض اراده است به دیگری
اطاعت خدا و بندگی غیرخدا
آیا اطاعت از زور حق است
توازی دوستی و دشمنی با خوبی و بدی
فصل چهارم: قرارداد اجتماعی: بداهت یا واقعیت
وحدت حالت طبیعی و حالت اجتماعی
بداهت قرارداد اجتماعی
قرارداد اجتماعی ح د آزادی طبیعی است

Andrei Gorokhov,
editor-in-chief of the journal «Russian political science»,
PhD of political science

 

EDUCATION OF THE FUTURE: USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE
EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the introduction of digital technologies in education. Online education at closed schools and universities has helped to restore the educational process. But online education is only part of the digital technologies that are used in education today. Today we want to talk about how artificial intelligence helps in education. First. Artificial intelligence allows for personalized learning.
Using AI, you can adapt the educational process to the individual learning speed of each student and offer tasks of increasing complexity. How does this happen? The computer analyzes the progress of each
student, identifies the student’s problem, and gives the student an individual task to master the material. For example, in Russia there is an online English school SkyEng. In this school, the AI analyzes every lesson, student progress, teacher performance, and changes the learning trajectory. Second. AI can provide control over students during tests and exams. During exams, the system monitors whether students talk to each other, how often they look away from their notebook or computer, whether they use gadgets, etc. When violations are detected, the AI immediately sends an alert to the teacher. For example, such an AI-based control system was developed by company Rostelecom (Russia). And since 2020, it is being implemented for monitoring during the Unified state exam in schools. The third. Digital assistants that use artificial intelligence algorithms. Digital assistants allow you to free employees of universities and schools from routine work. For example, the University of Georgia (USA) uses the digital assistant AdmitHub. This is a chatbot that answers students questions. In Russia, programmers have created the app “Vasya” — the world’s first virtual English teacher. The use of artificial intelligence and online education combined with
traditional forms of learning can significantly improve the level of education. And this is the future of education all over the world! Therefore, teachers and students need to learn how to use new technologies in the educational process.

 

ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ БУДУЩЕГО: ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ИСКУССТВЕННОГО
ИНТЕЛЛЕКТА В ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОМ ПРОЦЕССЕ

 

Пандемия COVID-19 ускорила процесс внедрения цифровых технологий в образовании. Онлайн обучение при закрытых школах и университетах позволило восстановить образовательный процесс. Но онлайн образование — это только часть цифровых технологий, которые используются сегодня в образовании. Сегодня мы хотим рассказать о том, как в образовании помогает искусственный интеллект. Первое. Искусственный интеллект позволяет осуществлять персонализированное обучение. При помощи ИИ можно адаптировать образовательный процесс к индивидуальной скорости обучения каждого студента и предлагать задания возрастающей сложности. Как это происходит? Компьютер анализирует прогресс каждого студента, выявляет проблему у студента и в форме индивидуального задания дает студенту освоить материал. Например, в России есть онлайн-школа английского языка SkyEng. В этой школе ИИ анализирует каждое занятие, прогресс ученика, работу учителя и меняет траекторию обучения. Второе. ИИ может обеспечивать контроль студентов во время прохождения тестов и экзаменов. Во время экзаменов система контролирует разговаривают ли между собой школьники или студенты, как часто отводят глаза от тетради или компьютера, пользуются ли гаджетами и т.д. При выявлении нарушений ИИ сразу отправляет оповещение
преподавателю. Например, на основе ИИ такая система контроля разработана компанией “Ростелеком” (Россия). И с 2020 года внедряется для контроля во время проведения Единого государственного экзамена в школах. Третье. Цифровые помощники, которые используют алгоритмы искусственного интеллекта. Цифровые помощники позволяют освободить от рутинной работы
сотрудников университетов и школ. Например, В Университете Джорджии (США) используется цифровой помощник AdmitHub. Это чат-бот, который отвечает на вопросы студентов. В России программисты создали приложение «Вася» — это первый в мире виртуальный преподаватель английского языка. Применение искусственного интеллекта и онлайн образования в
сочетании с традиционными формами обучения могут значительно повысить уровень образования. И это будущее образования во всем мире! Поэтому преподавателям и студентам необходимо учится использовать новые технологии в образовательном процессе.

CENTRAL-ASIAN EXPERT CLUB “Eurasian Development”

 

The Central Asian Expert Club “Eurasian Development” (CAEC “Eurasian Development”) is an international public organization whose goal is to consolidate the efforts of the expert community of Tajikistan, Russia, European Union and other Eurasian countries to develop and implement projects and programs of Eurasian development.

 

CAEC “Eurasian Development” was registered in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on public associations on March 20, 2014. Registration certificate number 1597.

 

The activities of the Club are built around the elaboration and promotion of the concept of Eurasian development as a practical program for the joint development of the countries of Central Asia and with active cooperation with other countries in Eurasia and beyond. This program includes both a historical and philosophical rationale and the development of appropriate strategic, sectoral and regional solutions.

 

To achieve the main goal, the Club carries out its activities in the following forms:

 

– organization and holding of conferences, round tables, forums, seminars on the issue of Eurasian development;

– establishing links, organizing information exchange with state, political, academic, expert, media and other organizations;

– carrying out scientific research, analytical, project development on its own or with partners in Tajikistan and other countries of Eurasia;

– a broad presentation of the activities of the Club in the media, facilitating a public discussion of the Eurasian development issues.

 

   Chairman of the Board of the Club – Safarov Saifullo Sadulloevich, PhD, first-deputy Director of the Center for strategic studies under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan.

 

   Executive director – Khidoyatzoda Komroni Jamolidin, Head of the League of the young geo-politicians of Russian-Tajik (Slavonic) University, leading specialist of the Department of analyzing and forecasting of foreign policy of the Center for strategic studies under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan.

 

The club has established working contacts with expert and public organizations of Russia, China, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, India and other countries of Eurasia.

 

www.eurazvitiye.org

JIANG Shixue:How to explain the Belt and Road Initiative to the world

 

创建时间:  2018-07-30     浏览次数: 1732

 

Editor’s note:Jiang Shixue is a professor at theInstitute of Global Studies at Shanghai University.The article reflects the author’s opinion, and not necessarily the views of CGTN.

 

Remarkable progress has been made since the Belt and Road Initiative was put forward by Chinese President Xi Jinping almost five years ago. There is no doubt about its significance.

 

Often dubbed as a type of public good, the initiative is one of China’s most important contributions to world peace and development. It was written into the constitution of the Communist Party of China in 2017.

 

However, outside of China, there is still widespread misunderstanding, misjudgment and false perceptions among scholars, government officials, media and the business community about the Belt & Road. For instance, some tend to view the initiative as a tool for China to rule or conquer the world. Others rush to conclude that the initiative is simply a long-term strategy for China to compete with the West or even to rewrite international rules.

 

 

Senegal is the first West African country to sign a Belt and Road cooperation document with China. /VCG Photo

 

The root causes of the misunderstanding, misjudgment and false perceptions are twofold. On the one hand, many people in the West still look at China through tinted lenses. Hence, whatever China does and says is perceived as a kind of ill-minded endeavor to challenge Western dominance. On the other hand, the way of publicizing the Belt and Road Initiative by some Chinese scholars and the media is counterproductive.

 

Indeed, in order to make the initiative understood by the outside world or to defuse misunderstanding, misjudgment and false perceptions, Chinese scholars, journalists, government officials and businessmen must try their best to publicize it. In the process of doing so, however, there have been several shortcomings.

 

The biggest shortcoming is exaggeration. According to some Chinese scholars, the initiative is capable of achieving everything, from resisting anti-globalization to promoting global governance, from stimulating world economic growth to maintaining world peace. Some of them even claim that it will change the destiny of mankind that has been maintained for the past 1,500 years. Others predict that it will inaugurate another epic period in which China will again lead the world.

 

To a certain extent, these descriptions are far from realistic and fuel the Western mentality of a “China threat” or “fear of China.”

 

Another shortcoming is to see the initiative as a “basket” into which everything can be put. For instance, a Chinese company made a huge investment in a hydroelectricity dam in a Latin American country in a project that was described as a “flagship” of Belt & Road. In reality, the agreement to undertake the project was signed in 2009 and construction started in 2010, three or four years earlier than the birth of the Belt & Road.

 

A report that summarizes the progress of the initiative for the first three years claimed that “by June 30, 2016, China has signed 14 free trade agreements (FTA) with 22 countries and areas.” As a matter of fact, all these FTAs were concluded before 2013.

 

At a news conference in Beijing in early 2017, it was stated that 134 Confucius Institutes were built in 2016. The number is doubtful. The first Confucius Institute was established in 2004. According to Hanban, the Confucius Institute headquarters, after 13 years, i.e., by the end of 2017, China had opened 525 such institutes in 146 countries and areas. It is unlikely, therefore, that 134 institutes were established during 2016.

 

An article published by a Chinese news agency in May 2017 said, “Two months ago, the UN Security Council passed the Resolution 2344 (2017), calling on every country to push forward the construction of the Belt & Road,” implying that this UN document is written purposefully to encourage every country to participate in the Chinese initiative.

 

The UN Security Council did approve Resolution 2344 (2017) on March 17, 2017, but the document was not specifically about Belt & Road, as the Chinese article suggested. The full title of the UN document is: “Security Council Authorizes Year-Long Mandate Extension for United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, Adopting Resolution 2344 (2017)”. According to the resolution, the UN Security Council “[w]elcomes and urges further efforts to strengthen the process of regional economic cooperation, including measures to facilitate regional connectivity, trade and transit, including through regional development initiatives such as the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road (the Belt and Road) Initiative, and regional development projects, such as …”. That is to say, China’s Belt & Road is only one of many initiatives to tackle the Afghanistan issue.

 

 

A Belt & Road brand expo has been held in Shanghai since Jun 29, 2018. /VCG Photo

 

Since Donald Trump became US President and the UK decided to quit the European Union, anti-globalization sentiment has been on the rise. Therefore, how to push forward globalization has become an urgent task for the world.

 

Some Chinese scholars waste no time in describing the Belt & Road as “the new wave of globalization” that is capable of replacing the current wave “dominated by Western capitalism.”

 

This prediction is logically problematic. The Belt and Road Initiative and globalization are two different things. Whereas the former is a concept composed of “five links” – policy coordination, infrastructure connection, trade facilitation, financial capital flows and people-to-people exchanges – the latter is the tendency for increasingly rapid cross-border movement of goods, capital, people, technology, ideas, etc. Therefore, by definition, the Belt & Road itself is not globalization per se. The initiative can help speed up globalization by making good use of the “five links.”

 

It is also a sad fact that five years after the Belt and Road Initiative was put forward, some Chinese scholars and the media are still occupied with the efforts to explain why it is important and significant. As a matter of fact, the urgency lies in the necessity of how to implement the “five links” in an unpredictable and uncertain world.

 

In the past five years, so many forums, conferences and seminars about the Belt & Road have taken place. A large number of these events are characterized by VIPs reading similar speeches describing the importance and significance of the project, resulting in less time to discuss ways and means of realizing the “five links.” Even many Chinese scholars are just repeating similar words.

 

Indeed, the Belt and Road Initiative is one of the greatest contributions China has made under the great leadership of Xi Jinping. In order to make it known correctly to the outside world, Chinese scholars, along with the media and government officials, have the obligation to publicize it in an objective and realistic way. Furthermore, they must work harder to tell the government and business community how to deal with all kinds of risks, problems, and challenges in achieving the “five links.”

China-US Trade Relations: Think tanks discuss solutions to trade dispute ahead of G20 Summit

 

创建时间:  2018-09-30     浏览次数: 24

 

As the trade war between China and the United States continues, think tanks from the G20 countries have gathered in Shanghai to discuss possible solutions. CGTN’s Wang Mengzhen has more.

 

 

In just two months’ time, the G20 summit will go to Buenos Aires, Argentina. It will be the first time that a G20 meeting is held in South America.

 

But over in China’s financial capital, Shanghai University and Argentina’s International Relations Council are collaborating to host this special T20 forum.

 

The Think20 is a network of research institutes and think tanks from G20 countries.

 

Addressing the forum, the Argentinian ambassador to China, also a two-time ambassador to the US, remains optimistic about the current trade disputes between the world’s two largest economies.

 

DIEGO RAMIRO GUELAR ARGENTINIAN AMBASSADOR TO CHINA “US and China are more partners than enemies. They are interested finally in reaching an agreement. As the meeting will be after the mid-term election in the US. This confrontation atmosphere is going to be finished.”

 

So, what kind of solutions remain to de-escalate China-US trade tensions? Global scholars are having their own say here during the two-day forum.

 

JIANG SHIXUE, VICE PRESIDENT CHINA SOCIETY FOR THE EMERGING ECONOMIES “The concerned parties should sit down and have a cup of coffee and discuss solutions. If they can find a joint solution and make some compromises, there will be a win-win. ”

 

BENJAMIN GEDAN, FELLOW WILSON CENTER, UNITED STATES “I think it’s important that president Xi and President Trump have an opportunity to negotiate face to face. What I don’t believe is President Trump’s views are being shaped by the election or narrow political calculations in the US.”

 

GREGORY MILLS, DIRECTOR BRENTHURST FOUNDATION, SOUTH AFRICA “A real win is a resurgence or reinvigoration of WTO.”

 

WANG MENGZHEN SHANGHAI “Today is also the 5th anniversary of the founding of the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone. The area is just one example of China’s transformation over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up. Experts predict that the G20 summit in Argentina this November will be a prime time for China, the United States, and other leading economies, to negotiate current trade disputes. WANG MENGZHEN, CGTN, SHANGHAI.”

 

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